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No matter where you live on this earth, you experience seasons with different weather, hours of light and ecology at specific times of the year. This is due to the annual orbit of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis. 


Seasons are typically divided into 4 distinct segments of the year. Seasons in the southern hemisphere are opposite to seasons in the northern hemisphere. Most countries follow similar dates for the change of season, however, a few countries have different dates they mark as the beginning or ending of a season. 

The seasons are most commonly based on astronomy and how the earth orbits the sun, with the equinoxes (when day and night are closest to being equal with approximately 12 hours each from the sun is directly over the equator) and solstices (longest daylight or shortest daylight) marking the beginning and ending of each season. 


4 Seasons Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere Event Rule
March Equinox Spring Autumn/Fall Nearly Equal day/night On March 19, 20, or 21
June Solstice Summer Winter Longest Daylight On or near June 21
September Equinox Autumn/Fall Spring Nearly Equal day/night On or near September 22
December Solstice Winter Summer Shortest Daylight On or near December 21

Other Seasons

There are several places on earth that have their own unique seasons and some start their seasons on the first of the month prior to the seasonal equinox or solstice, similar to a meteorological season. 

Meteorological seasons divide the year by month with the seasonal dates being similar to the astrological seasons. 

  • Spring - March, April, May
  • Summer - June, July August
  • Fall / Autumn - September, October, November
  • Winter - December, January, February

Southeast Asia has Monsoon Season. 

Most of the tropics have Wet & Dry Season.  The Northern Territory in Australia, for example, recognizes Wet & Dry seasons with a build up season prior to the wet season.